Maresca Lab Research Featured on the Cover of The Journal of Cell Biology

The genomic integrity of an organism is at risk of being compromised every time one of its cells divides. This is because errors in chromosome segregation result in aneuploidy – an abnormal cell division outcome in which daughter cells acquire an incorrect set of chromosomes. Aneuploidy is a hallmark of many cancer cells and the cause of numerous developmental disorders as well as a majority of miscarriages in the first trimester. To ensure that DNA is accurately segregated during cell division, replicated chromosomes must interact with and become aligned by the spindle. Despite the importance of getting it right, cell division is error prone and dividing cells must constantly detect and correct erroneous interactions between chromosomes and the spindle to avoid aneuploidy.

The Maresca lab investigates a central, yet poorly understood contributor to the process of cell division - force. It is evident that forces produced by motors and microtubules stabilize correct interactions between chromosomes and the spindle; however, the molecular basis by which this is achieved is unclear. Research from the Maresca lab characterizing a mysterious cell division force known as the polar ejection force (PEF) has recently been published in and featured on the cover of The Journal of Cell Biology. Maresca, with MCB grad students Stuart Cane and Anna Ye and technician Sasha Luks-Morgan, found that erroneous interactions between chromosomes and spindle microtubules could not be corrected when the PEF was experimentally increased. Elevated PEFs led to dramatic chromosome mis-segregation and aneuploidy. The research reveals how an important molecular motor generates the PEF and how forces impact the accuracy of cell division by overwhelming error correction mechanisms.
Read more at Science Daily.
Read still more at JCB.

Maresca Receives Child Health Research Award

Biology Assistant Professor Tom Maresca was recently awarded the Child Health Research Award (CHRA) by the Charles H. Hood Foundation. The CHRA supports newly independent faculty in order to provide them the opportunity to demonstrate creativity and assist in the transition to other sources of research funding.

The two-year grant of $150,000 is awarded annually to five researchers who are within five years of their first faculty appointment at an academic, medical or research institution in New England. The Charles H. Hood Foundation aims to improve the health and quality of life for children through grant support of pediatric researchers.

Irschick and Colleagues Lauded for "Top Science Breakthrough"

Geckskin, a super-strong adhesive device developed by Biology professor Duncan Irschick and his colleagues, has been named one of the top five science breakthroughs of 2012 by CNN Money.

Inspired by the footpads of geckos and able to fasten a 700 pound weight to a smooth wall, Geckskin was created by Irschick and polymer scientists Michael Bartlett and Alfred Crosby. Irschick has studied the gecko’s climbing and clinging abilities for more than twenty years. The researchers published their findings in Advanced Materials last February.

Previous efforts to synthesize the tremendous adhesive power of gecko feet and pads were based on the qualities of microscopic hairs called setae, but efforts to translate these qaulities to larger scales were unsuccessful, in part because the complexity of the entire gecko foot was not taken into account. A gecko’s foot has several interacting elements, including tendons, bones and skin, that work together to produce easily reversible adhesion.

Irschick, Bartlett, Crosby and the rest of the research team unlocked the simple yet elegant secret of how it’s done, to create a device that can handle very large weights. Geckskin and its supporting theory demonstrate that setae are not required for gecko-like performance, according to Crosby. “It’s a concept that has not been considered in other design strategies and one that may open up new research avenues in gecko-like adhesion in the future.”

Read the CNN Money write-up.

View a video about Geckskin.

Biology Undergrad and Post-doc Publish in Current Biology

Biology Department researchers led by Wei-Lih Lee have identified a new molecular player in asymmetric cell division, a regulatory protein named She1 whose role in chromosome- and spindle positioning wasn’t known before. Asymmetric cell division is important in the self-renewal of stem cells and because it ensures that daughter cells have different fates and functions.

Lee and postdoctoral researcher Steven Markus, with undergraduate Junior Fellow Katelyn Kalutkiewicz, identified She 1 as the first known regulator of asymmetric cell division that inhibits the dynein engine, but surprisingly also promotes asymmetric division. Their work will appear in the December 4 print edition of Current Biology and is supported by the NIH’s National Institute of General Medical Sciences.

Read more here.

Herbarium Collection Receives Grant

The Herbarium (MASS) recently received a four-year NSF “Advancing Digitization in Biological Collections Thematic Collections Network” grant as part of a consortium of five other New England herbaria including those at Harvard and Yale. This was one of four ADBC grants awarded in 2012. Under this grant, the University of Massachusetts herbarium will be responsible for data-basing approximately 90,000 UMass specimens of New England vascular plants as well as approximately 12,000 from Westfield State University and 3000 from the Harvard Forest Herbarium in Petersham. Once digitized, a subset will be analyzed for the impact of climate change and land use on vegetation patterns in New England. The digitizing equipment will remain at the University of Massachusetts to become a focal point for digitizing other herbaria in the region.